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  •  Course 1: Absolute Beginners - Lesson Six / Gwers Chwech


    Today we will be covering inflected prepositions, a subject which sometimes causes difficulty for Welsh learners. We will be considering this question with reference to three Welsh words:-  am ar  and  gan .

    In this sixth  lesson  we will cover the following topics:-

    1.  Inflected Prepositions

    2.  Am

    3.  Ar

    4.  Gan

    5.  Translation Exercises

    6 How to use the crosswords & Croeseiriau Cymraeg  6


    Enjoy / Mwynhewch.

     Inflected Prepositions


    What is a preposition? "...a word governing, and usually preceding, a noun or pronoun and expressing a relation to another word or element in the clause, as in “the man  on  the platform,” “she arrived  after  dinner,” “what did you do it  for  ?"

    Inflections are word elements that indicate grammatical relationships between words in a sentence. This will become clear once we have considered the examples which follow. Prepositions in English are not inflected.

    The endings for inflected prepositions are listed below although there is some dialect variation.

    Singular

    First Person - a i 
    Second Person - at ti   - och chi
    Third Person Masculine - o fe/fo 
    Third Person Feminine - i hi

    Plural

    First person  - on ni
    Second Person  - och chi
    Third Person   - yn nhw

    Here is a partial list of Welsh prepositions which take inflected endings:-

    ar , at am dan dros drwy heb gan rhwng , o wrth yn

    ...

     Am


    Am is a Welsh preposition meaning  for, about, around, of, at . It also functions as a conjunction meaning  because, forasmuch, since .

    Consider the following sentence:- ' Dyn ni'n siarad am y tywydd.'  = 'We are talking about the weather.'

    All perfectly straightforward. Now lets suppose we wanted to say :- 'We are talking about you.'

    This translates to:-   'Dyn ni'n siarad amdanoch chi.'

    Note how the form of the preposition has changed to reflect the object of the sentence.

    Here are the forms for each pronoun:-

    amdana(f) i  - about me
    amdanat ti  - about you (formal & plural)
    amdanoch chi  - about you (familiar)
    amdani hi  - about her
    amdano fe  - about him
    amdanon ni  - about us
    amdanyn nhw  - about them

    Here is another example followed by some practice sentences:-   

    Maen nhw'n siarad amdanon ni.  = They are talking about us.

    Dych chi'n siarad amdana(f) i.  =   You're talking about me.

    Dwi'n meddwl amdanat ti.  =   I'm thinking of you.

    He is reading about us. =   Mae e'n darllen amdanon ni.

    We know about them. =   Dyn ni'n gwybod amdanyn nhw.

    ( To reveal the answers above highlight the line after the equals sign)

     Ar


    Ar is a Welsh preposition meaning  on  ( although it has a number of other meanings depending on context, including  about to  and  of  ) . 

    Consider the following sentence:-  'Dyn ni ar y bws.'  = 'We are on the bus.'

    Once again...no problem. Now lets suppose we wanted to say :- 'I've been keeping an eye on you.'

    This translates to:  ' Dwi wedi bod yn cadw llygad arnot ti.'

    Note how the form of the preposition has changed to reflect the object of the sentence.

    Here are the forms for each pronoun:-

    arna/f i   - on me
    arnat ti   - on you (familiar)
    arno fe / fo   - on him / it
    arni hi  - on her
    arnon ni  - on us
    arnoch chi  - on you (formal & plural)
    arnyn nhw   - on them

    Ar  is also used when describing physical and mental states  like illnesses and disease. In this context it usually corresponds to the English verb,  have

    Here is another example followed by some practice sentences:- 

    Mae gen i gwestiwn. - I have a question. 

    Mae annwyd trwm arna i.  =  I have a heavy cold.

    Mae'r ddannodd arna i.  =  I have a toothache.

    You have a heavy cold. =   Mae annwyd trwm arnoch chi.

    She has a toothache. =   Mae'r ddannodd arni hi.

    ( To reveal the answers above highlight the line after the equals sign)

     Gan


    Gan is a preposition meaning 'with, by, from' and as a conjunction meaning 'since, as'.

    It is also used to mean "to have" although  gyda  is more commonly used in this context in southern Welsh.

    Consider the following sentence:-  'Mae gen i gath ddu.'  = 'I have a black cat.'

    Note how the form of the preposition ( gen i ) has changed to reflect the object of the sentence.

    Here are the forms for each pronoun:-

    I have              gen i
    you have         gen ti
    you have         gynnoch chi
    he has             ganddo/gynno fo/fe
    she has           ganddi/gynno hi
    we have          gynnon ni
    they have        ganddyn nhw

    Here is another example followed by some practice sentences:- 

    Mae gynnoch chi ardd.  = You have a garden.

    Mae gen i lyfr.  =  I have a book.

    Mae gennych chi lyfr.  =  You have a book.

    We have a dog. =   Mae gynnon ni gi.

    They have a garden. =  Mae ganddyn nhw ardd.

    ( To reveal the answers above highlight the line after the equals sign)

     Translation Exercises


    And so to our second weekly translation exercise. You will find two short conversations below. Don't worry about getting these 100% correct to begin with, that will take a while, and mistakes are an essential part of learning . You should be familiar with all the necessary grammar and if you need to look up some of the vocabulary go here:  Croeseiriau Cymraeg  and type your query in the search box.

    Search is located in the right hand column just below the ad for this  course . Remember that some words may be mutated so that their first letter is dropped or altered. This can be problematic for  beginners . If you cant find the Welsh try searching the English word if you know it. 

    Welsh to English

    Dyn ni'n mynd i'r dre nawr.
    Ble mae'r car?
    Dyn ni ddim yn cymryd y car heddiw.
    Sut ydyn ni'n mynd i fynd i dref?
    Dyn ni'n mynd i deithio ar y trên.

    English to Welsh

    Have you bought tickets?
    Yes, I've been to the station this morning.
    Okay! I'm going to get my bag.
    Don't forget the money.
    We are going shopping and then to the pub.

    You will find the solutions here:  Solutions

     How to use the crosswords & Croeseiriau Cymraeg 6


    And so to our sixth crossword. This week the theme is 'Out on the Town'.

    ...
      • Click through the slides below and learn the words as you go.

      • Optional: If you want help with pronunciation or wish to check out other vocabulary entries on the wordcard, click the pic or text below to be taken to the appropriate Geiriadur listing page. 



    Thats it for week six. We hope that you have enjoyed the sixth instalment of the  course  and that your knowledge of the Welsh language has improved. 
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    * Don't worry if some of the sample sentences are at a more advanced level. Concentrate on the simpler ones unless of  course  you are feeling adventurous and want to read ahead.

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