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  • Course 1: Absolute Beginners Lesson 8 / Gwers Wyth

    Croeso yn ôl i Groeseiriau Cymreig / Welcome back to Welsh Crosswords

    In this lesson we will cover the following topics:-

    1.  Rhaid - Must

    2.  Newydd - Just

    3.  Gyda - With

    4.  Translation Exercises

    5.  How to use the crosswords &  Croeseiriau   Cymraeg   8

    Enjoy / Mwynhewch.

    1. Rhaid - Must

    In this section we learn how to say 'I must / I have to" in Welsh. This formulation is followed by a Soft Mutation. See below:

    Mae/'n rhaid i fi / i mi  - I must

    Mae/'n rhaid i ti  - You must (familiar)

    Mae/'n rhaid iddo fe / iddi hi  - He / She must

    Mae/'n rhaid i ni  - We must

    Mae/'n rhaid i chi  - You must (singular formal & plural)

    Mae/'n rhaid iddyn nhw  - They must


    Mae/'n rhaid i fi / i mi
     - I must / I have to...e.g..

    Mae/'n rhaid i mi fynd nawr / rŵan.  - I must go now.       

    Mae/'n rhaid i mi ddarllen y llyfr!  - I have to read the book.

    Mae/'n rhaid iddyn nhw fynd i'r llyfrgell.  - They have to go to the library.

    Mae/'n rhaid i chi fwyta.  - You must eat / You have to eat.


    Does dim rhaid i fi / i mi
     - I don't have to
    .. e.g.

    Does dim rhaid i mi fynd nawr / rŵan.   - I don't have to go now.

    Does dim rhaid i mi ddarllen y llyfr!  - I don't have to read the book!

    Does dim rhaid iddyn nhw fynd i'r llyfrgell. - They don't have to go to the library.  

    Does dim  rhaid i chi fwyta.  - You don't have to eat. 


    Oes rhaid i fi / i mi?
     - Must I? / Do I have to?. e.g. 

    Oes rhaid i mi fynd nawr / rŵan?   - Do I have to go now?

    Oes rhaid i mi ddarllen y llyfr?   - Do I have to read the book?

    Oes rhaid iddyn nhw fynd i'r llyfrgell. - Do they have to go to the library?

    Oes rhaid i chi fwyta.  - Do you have to eat? 


     - Yes    Na  - No   or  Na, does dim.....

    This is, obviously an important formulation and you should take some time to master and practice it. Here are some examples and practice sentences:-

    Rhaid i mi fynd i'r llyfrgell yfory.  = I must go to the library tomorrow.

    Rhaid i mi gerdded pum milltir bob dydd.  =  I must walk five miles every day.

    Rhaid i mi ddarllen y llyfr hwn.  =  I must read this book.

    You must eat your lunch. = Rhaid i chi fwyta'ch cinio. / Rhaid i ty fwyta dy ginio.

    We must be close now. =   Rhaid i ni fod yn agos nawr.

    ( To reveal the answers above highlight the line after the equals sign)

    2. Newydd - Just

     is used before a verb to express the idea that something has recently or  just  happened ( see examples below). 

    Dwi newydd  cyrraedd   adre . - I just arrived home.
    Dwi newydd  brynu  y  llyfr . - I have just bought the book.
    Dwi newydd  ddychwelyd   yma .  - I have just returned here.

    As you will observe in the above sentences 'newydd' causes a  soft mutation  when used this way. 

    So, in the above example if we want to say that -  'I have arrived home.' - we would say  Dwi wedi cyrraedd ardre.  If, however we want to say - 'I have  just  arrived home.' - we say -  Dwi newydd cyrraedd  adre.

    Here are a few practice examples:-

    Maen nhw newydd gyrraedd.  = They have just arrived.

    We just bought a new car. =  Dyn ni newydd brynu car newydd.

    They have just  realised what time it is. = Maen nhw newydd sylweddoli faint o'r gloch yw hi .

    ( To reveal the answers above highlight the line after the equals sign)

    3.  Gyda - With

    Gyda   means 'with' in the south Walian dialect. In the north efo is used.  It is usually abbreviated to  'da  in speech.

    Gyda  is used in the South to show possession, as  gan  is used in the North, but their forms differ. You may recall from  Email  6 that  gan  is an inflected preposition.  Gyda  is not.

    Consider the following example: – 'They have a dog.':

    Mae ci 'da nhw.  (south)

    Mae ganddyn nhw gi.  (north)

    Here are a few practice examples (use gyda):

    Mae arian 'da nhw.  = They have money.

    Mae merch 'da hi.  = She has a daughter.

    I have a bike. =  Mae beic 'da fi.

    You have a cat. =  Mae gath 'da chi / ti.

    ( To reveal the answers above highlight the line after the equals sign)

    4.  Translation Exercises

    And so to our fourth weekly translation exercise. You will find two short conversations below.  You should be familiar with all the necessary grammar and if you need to look up some of the vocabulary go here: -  Croeseiriau   Cymraeg  and type your query in the search box. Search is located in the right hand column just below the ad for this course. Remember that some words may be mutated so that their first letter is dropped or altered. This can be problematic for  beginners . If you cant find the Welsh try searching the English word if you know it. 

    Welsh to English

    "Ble mae fy mwced a rhaw?"
    "Dych chi'n rhy hen i fwced a rhaw."
    "Maen nhw ar gyfer plant o bob oed ac dwi eisiau adeiladu castell tywod."
    "Os oes rhaid."
    "Dw i'n mynd i'w adeiladu ger y pwll hwn."

    English to Welsh

    "I'm going to swim now."
    "Okay .... but you have to wait this side of the danger sign."
    "I always do."
    "Stay safe at all times."
    "Of course. I don't want to drown."

    You will find the solutions here:  Solutions

    5.    How to use the crosswords & Croeseiriau Cymraeg 8

    And so to our weekly crossword. This week the theme is 'Ar y Traeth - At The Beach' .

      • Click through the slides below and learn the words as you go.

      • Optional: If you want help with pronunciation or wish to check out other vocabulary entries on the wordcard, click the pic or text below to be taken to the appropriate Geiriadur listing page. 

    That's it for week eight. We hope that you have enjoyed this instalment of the course and that your knowledge of the Welsh language has improved. 
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    * Don't worry if some of the sample sentences are at a more advanced level. Concentrate on the simpler ones unless of course you are feeling adventurous and want to read ahead.