Croeseiriau Cymraeg Part 2 (Crosswords 7-12) Grammar - The Future Tense And More
The Future Tense
For now we are going to form the future tense using 'mynd'. This form of the future tense is very straight forward and does not involve learning much more than you already know.
Basically, in order to form the future tense this way we simply use 'Dwi'n mynd i .....' (I am going to .....) with an auxiliary or helper verb. In the example below we have used 'edrych' (to look).
SO: 'Dwi'n mynd i edrych' = 'I am going to look'
The syntax is almost identical in Welsh and English. Admittedly this is not a full substitute for the Future Simple tense ( I will look), which we will cover in section three but it will work in the vast majority of cases.
( N.B.This is a periphrastic form of the future tense. We have included a link to a definition page for your convenience although there is no need to understand this term in order to proceed. )
Future Tense - Affirmative
Dwi'n mynd i edrych - I am going to look
Wyt ti'n mynd i edrych - You are going to look (familiar)
Mae e'n mynd i edrych / Mae hi'n mynd i edrych - He / She is going to look
Dyn ni'n mynd i edrych - We are going to look
Dych chi'n mynd i edrych - You (plural) are going to look (also singular formal)
Maen nhw'n mynd i edrych - They are going to look
Future Tense - Negative
Dwi ddim yn mynd i edrych - I am not going to look
Dwyt ti ddim yn mynd i edrych - You are not going to look (familiar)
Dydy e ddim yn mynd i edrych / Dydy hi ddim yn mynd i edrych - He / She is not going to look
Dyn ni ddim yn mynd i edrych - We are not going to look
Dych chi ddim yn mynd i edrych - You (plural) are not going to look (also singular formal)
Dyn nhw ddim yn mynd i edrych - They are not going to look
Future Tense - Interrogative
Ydw i'n mynd i edrych? - Am I going to look?
Wyt ti'n mynd i edrych? - Are you going to look? (familiar)
Ydy e'n mynd i edrych / Ydy hi'n mynd i edrych? - Is he / Is she going to look?
Ydyn ni'n mynd i edrych? - Are we going to look?
Ydych chi'n mynd i edrych? - Are you (plural) going to look? (also singular formal)
Ydyn nhw'n mynd i edrych? - Are they going to look?
Question - ’No / Yes’ Replies
Ydw i'n mynd i edrych? - (Nac) Ydw
Wyt ti'n mynd i edrych? - (Nac) Wyt / (Ydych - formal)
Ydy e'n mynd i edrych / Ydy hi'n mynd i edrych? - (Nac) Ydy
Ydyn ni'n mynd i edrych? - (Nac) Ydyn / Ydych
Ydych chi'n mynd i edrych? - (Nac) Ydyn / (Ydw - formal)
Ydyn nhw'n mynd i edrych? - (Nac) Ydyn
N.B. 'Wyt ti' is the familiar form of the 2nd person and should be used only when addressing close friends, family members and animals. 'Dych chi' is the polite form and should be used in all other instances.
To make the 'command' (imperative) form of the verb add 'a' to the stem if you are talking to loved ones, family, children, friends or animals. Add 'wch' to the stem when talking to anyone else, or to groups of people.
What is the stem of a verb?
Verbs ending in 'ed' (drop 'ed')
cerdded cerdda cerddwch
Verbs ending in 'u' (drop 'u')
dysgu dysga dysgwch
Verbs ending in 'o' (drop 'o')
gwisgo gwisga gwisgwch
There are exceptions to this rule and they are covered on individual verb entry pages. For a partial list of exceptions go here:- Imperative Irregular Verbs
From the Wikipedia - Conjunctions "In grammar, a conjunction (abbreviated CONJ or CNJ) is a part of speech that connects words, phrases, or clauses...."
In the above sample sentence we have used the conjunction 'ond' (but) to join the two short sentences:-
Dwi'n hoffi daearyddiaeth.
Dwi ddim yn deall mapiau.
You may, by this point, be tired of forming simple Welsh sentences with only a single clause. Why not take a look at some of the other sample sentences on the noun pages of the 'Geiriadur' and see if you can form more complex sentences by using conjunctions? e.g.
Dwi'n hoffi pysgod a sglodion ond dwi ddim yn hoffi selsig.
(I like fish and chips but I don't like sausages.)
Dw i'n mynd i Gaerffili yfory ond dwi ddim yn mynd i Gaerdydd
(I'm going to Caerphilly tomorrow but I'm not going to Cardiff)
Below is a partial list of Welsh conjunctions.
a - and
ac - and ('ac' is used before a vowel)
â - with, by means of
achos - because
hyd oni - until
mai - that
megis - as, like, such as
na - not / don't
nes - until
neu - or
oherwydd - because (formal)
ond - but
oni - unless / until
os - if
pan - when / while
pe - if
taw - that
tra - quite, entirely, very (formal)
wrth - by