AmeriCymru


 

Latest Followers:

Thomas Jones graham.lawler Mari Griffith patricia.davies Anne A. Rodgers bentejui.moreno-armas joanmay cherry LadyAnne1500 kphill59 darren.whittaker tsalagicymru56 Thomas Jones JohnB jan walker Evan Jones Teulu david.harrsen barbara.hogwood Paul Roberts Planet magazine monica.kriger nancy.mccurdy Dorian Ap Llywelyn Dulais Rhys

Stats

Blogs: 367
events: 47
youtube videos: 122
images: 57
Files: 3
FAQs: 3
Invitations: 1
Item Bundles: 1
videos: 2

Croeseiriau Cymraeg Part 2 (Crosswords 7-12) Grammar - The Future Tense And More

  • The Future Tense


    ...

    For now we are going to form the future tense using 'mynd'. This form of the future tense is very straight forward and does not involve learning much more than you already know.

    Basically, in order to form the future tense this way we simply use 'Dwi'n mynd i .....'  (I am going to .....) with an auxiliary or helper verb. In the example below we have used 'edrych' (to look).

    SO:  'Dwi'n mynd i edrych' = 'I am going to look'

    The syntax is almost identical in Welsh and English. Admittedly this is not a full substitute for the Future Simple tense ( I will look), which we will cover in section three but it will work in the vast majority of cases.

    ( N.B.This is a periphrastic form of the future tense. We have included a link to a definition page for your convenience although there is no need to understand this term in order to proceed. )

    ...


    Future Tense - Affirmative


    ...

    Dwi'n mynd i edrych - I am going to look

    Wyt ti'n mynd i edrych - You are going to look (familiar)

    Mae e'n mynd i edrych / Mae hi'n mynd i edrych - He / She is going to look

    Dyn ni'n mynd i edrych - We are going to look

    Dych chi'n mynd i edrych - You (plural) are going to look (also singular formal)

    Maen nhw'n mynd i edrych - They are going to look

    ...

    ,,,


    Future Tense - Negative


    ...

    Dwi ddim yn mynd i edrych - I am not going to look

    Dwyt ti ddim yn mynd i edrych - You are not going to look (familiar)

    Dydy e ddim yn mynd i edrych / Dydy hi ddim yn mynd i edrych - He / She is not going to look

    Dyn ni ddim yn mynd i edrych - We are not going to look

    Dych chi ddim yn mynd i edrych - You (plural) are not going to look (also singular formal)

    Dyn nhw ddim yn mynd i edrych - They are not going to look

    ...

    ...


    Future Tense - Interrogative


    ...

    Ydw i'n mynd i edrych? - Am I going to look?

    Wyt ti'n mynd i edrych? - Are you going to look? (familiar)

    Ydy e'n mynd i edrych / Ydy hi'n mynd i edrych? - Is he / Is she going to look?

    Ydyn ni'n mynd i edrych? - Are we going to look?

    Ydych chi'n mynd i edrych? - Are you (plural) going to look? (also singular formal)

    Ydyn nhw'n mynd i edrych? - Are they going to look?

    ...

    ...


    Question - ’No / Yes’ Replies


    ...

    Ydw i'n mynd i edrych? - (Nac) Ydw

    Wyt ti'n mynd i edrych? - (Nac) Wyt / (Ydych - formal)

    Ydy e'n mynd i edrych / Ydy hi'n mynd i edrych? - (Nac) Ydy

    Ydyn ni'n mynd i edrych? - (Nac) Ydyn / Ydych

    Ydych chi'n mynd i edrych? - (Nac) Ydyn / (Ydw - formal)

    Ydyn nhw'n mynd i edrych? - (Nac) Ydyn

    ...

    ...


    N.B. 'Wyt ti' is the familiar form of the 2nd person and should be used only when addressing close friends, family members and animals. 'Dych chi' is the polite form and should be used in all other instances.

  • Commands



    To make the 'command' (imperative) form of the verb add 'a' to the stem if you are talking to loved ones, family, children, friends or animals. Add 'wch' to the stem when talking to anyone else, or to groups of people.

    What is the stem of a verb?

    Verbs ending in 'ed' (drop 'ed')

    cerdded     cerdda    cerddwch

    Verbs ending in 'u' (drop 'u')

    dysgu    dysga    dysgwch

    Verbs ending in 'o' (drop 'o')

    gwisgo     gwisga    gwisgwch

    ...


    There are exceptions to this rule and they are covered on individual verb entry pages. For a partial list of exceptions go here:- Imperative Irregular Verbs

  • Adverbs



    In English adverbs are commonly formed by adding 'ly' to the end of the relevant adjective. In many cases Welsh adverbs are formed from adjectives, by placing ‘yn’ before the adjective. See examples below:-

    yn hawdd - easily
    yn araf - slowly
  • Questions - Part 1


    Question words

    ble - where

    sut - how

    beth - what

    pryd - when

    faint - how much

    ...

    Sample questions appear on individual word listing pages linked above.

  • Conjunctions



    From the Wikipedia - Conjunctions "In grammar, a conjunction (abbreviated CONJ or CNJ) is a part of speech that connects words, phrases, or clauses...."

    e.g. Dwi'n hoffi daearyddiaeth ond dwi ddim yn deall mapiau

    In the above sample sentence we have used the conjunction 'ond' (but) to join the two short sentences:-

    Dwi'n hoffi daearyddiaeth.

    Dwi ddim yn deall mapiau.

    Suggested Exercise

    You may, by this point, be tired of forming simple Welsh sentences with only a single clause. Why not take a look at some of the other sample sentences on the noun pages of the 'Geiriadur' and see if you can form more complex sentences by using conjunctions? e.g.

    Dwi'n hoffi pysgod a sglodion ond dwi ddim yn hoffi selsig.

    (I like fish and chips but I don't like sausages.)

    Dw i'n mynd i Gaerffili yfory ond dwi ddim yn mynd i Gaerdydd

    (I'm going to Caerphilly tomorrow but I'm not going to Cardiff)

    Below is a partial list of Welsh conjunctions.


    a - and
    ac - and ('ac' is used before a vowel)
    â - with, by means of
    achos - because
    hyd oni - until
    mai - that
    megis - as, like, such as
    na - not / don't
    nes - until
    neu - or
    oherwydd - because (formal)
    ond - but
    oni - unless / until
    os - if
    pan - when / while
    pe - if
    taw - that
    tra - quite, entirely, very (formal)
    wrth - by

comments powered by Disqus