Croeseiriau Cymraeg Part 1 (Crosswords 1-6) - Grammar - The Present Tense And More
The Present Tense
To form the present tense in Welsh we use the verb bod, 'to be' together with the appropriate verb-noun. In the examples below the verb cerdded (to walk) is used for demonstration purposes. Note that the simple present and the present continuous are formed in the same way. Consequently 'Dwi'n cerdded' can mean 'I walk' or 'I am walking'.
Bod - To Be Present Tense - Affirmative
Dwi'n cerdded - I am walking
Wyt ti'n cerdded - You are walking (familiar)
Mae e'n cerdded / Mae hi'n cerdded - He / She is walking
Dyn ni'n cerdded - We are walking
Dych chi'n cerdded - You (plural) are walking (also singular formal)
Maen nhw'n cerdded - They are walking
Bod - To Be Present Tense - Negative
Dwi ddim yn cerdded - I am not walking
Dwyt ti ddim yn cerdded - You are not walking (familiar)
Dydy e ddim yn cerdded / Dydy hi ddim yn cerdded - He / She is not walking
Dyn ni ddim yn cerdded - We are not walking
Dych chi ddim yn cerdded - You (plural) are not walking (also singular formal)
Dyn nhw ddim yn cerdded - They are not walking
Bod - To Be Present Tense - Interrogative
Ydw i'n cerdded? - Am I walking?
Wyt ti'n cerdded? - Are you walking? (familiar)
Ydy e'n cerdded / Ydy hi'n cerdded? - Is he / Is she walking?
Ydyn ni'n cerdded? - Are we walking?
Ydych chi'n cerdded? - Are you (plural) walking? (also singular formal)
Ydyn nhw'n cerdded? - Are they walking?
Bod - To Be Question - ’No / Yes’ Replies
Ydw i'n cerdded? - (Nac) Wyt / (Ydych - formal)
Wyt ti'n cerdded? - (Nac) Ydw
Ydy e'n cerdded / Ydy hi'n cerdded? - (Nac) Ydy
Ydyn ni'n cerdded? - (Nac) Ydyn / Ydych
Ydych chi'n cerdded? - (Nac) Ydyn / (Ydw - formal)
Ydyn nhw'n cerdded? - (Nac) Ydyn
N.B. 'Wyt ti' is the familiar form of the 2nd person and should be used only when addressing close friends, family members and animals. 'Dych chi' is the polite form and should be used in all other instances.
Present Perfect - Wedi
This is formed just like the present tense except yn is replaced by wedi. For example:-
Dwi wedi darllen y llyfr ( I have read the book )
Nouns & Adjectives
Adjectives always come after the noun in Welsh. There are few exceptions. Here are a some of the most important ones:-
In the sample sentences on some pages you will observe that the spelling of one word differs from the spelling on the relevant Geiriadur listing page. Be not alarmed!
This happens because:-
"Welsh, as with all other Celtic languages, often sees changes made to the beginning of words depending on the word that precedes it, or the role it plays in the sentence. These changes are known as "mutations", of which Welsh has three distinct types. Common situations in which a mutation may occur are when a word follows a preposition, possessive, or number."
The three types of mutation are:-
The three links above will take you to further information on Wikipedia about these commonly occurring mutations.
Most Welsh courses and teachers advise students not to worry too much about this at the outset. Fluent speakers will understand you if you forget to mutate a letter. With practice this will come naturally and there is perhaps, no need for beginning learners to make a conscious effort to apply these rules.
However, if you wish to acquaint yourself with the rules early on you could look out for the 'Mutant Alert' notice on the vocabulary pages and use these as an opportunity to refresh your knowledge by checking the above links.
This note will appear on listing pages where mutations occur in sample sentences.
Days of the Week - Dyddiau'r wythnos
More essential vocabulary.
Dydd Llun - Monday
Dydd Mawrth - Tuesday
Dydd Mercher - Wednesday
Dydd Iau - Thursday
Dydd Gwener - Friday
Dydd Sadwrn - Saturday
Dydd Sul - Sunday
Seasons & Months of the Year
Misoedd - Months
Ionawr - January
Chwefror - February
Mawrth - March
Ebrill - April
Mai - May
Mehefin - June
Gorffennaf - July
Awst - August
Medi - September
Hydref - October
Tachwedd - November
Rhagfyr - December
Tymhorau - Seasons
Y gwanwyn - Spring
Yr haf - Summer
Yr hydref - Autumn
Y gaeaf - Winter
Counting to Ten
OK so it's not exactly grammar but it is crucially important so we thought we would include it early on in the course. Counting to ten in Welsh:-
un - one
dau - two
tri - three
pedwar - four
pump - five
chwech - six
saith - seven
wyth - eight
naw - nine
deg - ten