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Croeseiriau Cymraeg Part 1 (Crosswords 1-6) - Grammar - The Present Tense And More

  • The Present Tense


    ...

    To form the present tense in Welsh we use the verb bod, 'to be' together with the appropriate verb-noun. In the examples below the verb cerdded (to walk) is used for demonstration purposes. Note that the simple present and the present continuous are formed in the same way. Consequently 'Dwi'n cerdded' can mean 'I walk' or 'I am walking'.

    ...


    Bod - To Be   Present Tense - Affirmative


    ...

    Dwi'n cerdded - I am walking

    Wyt ti'n cerdded - You are walking (familiar)

    Mae e'n cerdded / Mae hi'n cerdded - He / She is walking

    Dyn ni'n cerdded - We are walking

    Dych chi'n cerdded - You (plural) are walking (also singular formal)

    Maen nhw'n cerdded - They are walking

    ...

    ,,,


    Bod - To Be   Present Tense - Negative


    ...

    Dwi ddim yn cerdded - I am not walking

    Dwyt ti ddim yn cerdded - You are not walking (familiar)

    Dydy e ddim yn cerdded / Dydy hi ddim yn cerdded - He / She is not walking

    Dyn ni ddim yn cerdded - We are not walking

    Dych chi ddim yn cerdded - You (plural) are not walking (also singular formal)

    Dyn nhw ddim yn cerdded - They are not walking

    ...

    ...


    Bod - To Be   Present Tense - Interrogative


    ...

    Ydw i'n cerdded? - Am I walking?

    Wyt ti'n cerdded? - Are you walking? (familiar)

    Ydy e'n cerdded / Ydy hi'n cerdded? - Is he / Is she walking?

    Ydyn ni'n cerdded? - Are we walking?

    Ydych chi'n cerdded? - Are you (plural) walking? (also singular formal)

    Ydyn nhw'n cerdded? - Are they walking?

    ...

    ...


    Bod - To Be   Question - ’No / Yes’ Replies


    ...

    Ydw i'n cerdded? - (Nac) Wyt / (Ydych - formal)

    Wyt ti'n cerdded? - (Nac) Ydw

    Ydy e'n cerdded / Ydy hi'n cerdded? - (Nac) Ydy

    Ydyn ni'n cerdded? - (Nac) Ydyn / Ydych

    Ydych chi'n cerdded? - (Nac) Ydyn / (Ydw - formal)

    Ydyn nhw'n cerdded? - (Nac) Ydyn

    ...

    ...


    N.B. 'Wyt ti' is the familiar form of the 2nd person and should be used only when addressing close friends, family members and animals. 'Dych chi' is the polite form and should be used in all other instances.

  • Present Perfect - Wedi


    This is formed just like the present tense except yn is replaced by wedi. For example:-

    Dwi'n darllen y llyfr   ( I am reading the book )

    Dwi wedi darllen y llyfr  ( I have read the book )

    ( For more on the Present Perfect, which can be very confusing, see here and here. Fortunately the Present Perfect is easier to form in Welsh than in English. )

    ...

  • Nouns & Adjectives


    Adjectives always come after the noun in Welsh. There are few exceptions. Here are a some of the most important ones:-

    ...

    Hen - Old   Dwi'n siarad yr hen iaith ( I speak the old language )

    Hoff - Favourite   Dwi'n yfed fy hoff cwrw ( I am drinking my favourite beer )

    Prif - Chief / Main    Dwi'n mynd i'r brif ynys ( I am going to the main island )

    ...

  • Mutations



    mutant.jpgIn the sample sentences on some pages you will observe that the spelling of one word differs from the spelling on the relevant Geiriadur listing page. Be not alarmed!

    This happens because:-

    "Welsh, as with all other Celtic languages, often sees changes made to the beginning of words depending on the word that precedes it, or the role it plays in the sentence. These changes are known as "mutations", of which Welsh has three distinct types. Common situations in which a mutation may occur are when a word follows a preposition, possessive, or number."

    The three types of mutation are:-

    Soft Mutation

    Nasal Mutation

    Aspirate Mutation

    The three links above will take you to further information on Wikipedia about these commonly occurring mutations.

    Most Welsh courses and teachers advise students not to worry too much about this at the outset. Fluent speakers will understand you if you forget to mutate a letter. With practice this will come naturally and there is perhaps, no need for beginning learners to make a conscious effort to apply these rules.

    However, if you wish to acquaint yourself with the rules early on you could look out for the 'Mutant Alert' notice on the vocabulary pages and use these as an opportunity to refresh your knowledge by checking the above links.

    This note will appear on listing pages where mutations occur in sample sentences.



  • EXTRAS


  • Days of the Week - Dyddiau'r wythnos


    More essential vocabulary.calendr.png

    Dydd Llun - Monday
    Dydd Mawrth - Tuesday
    Dydd Mercher - Wednesday
    Dydd Iau - Thursday
    Dydd Gwener - Friday
    Dydd Sadwrn - Saturday
    Dydd Sul - Sunday

  • Seasons & Months of the Year


    Misoedd - Months

    Ionawr -  January
    Chwefror  - February
    Mawrth -  March
    Ebrill -  April
    Mai -  May
    Mehefin -  June
    Gorffennaf -  July
    Awst  - August
    Medi -  September
    Hydref - October
    Tachwedd -  November
    Rhagfyr  - December



    Tymhorau - Seasons

    Y gwanwyn - Spring
    Yr haf -  Summer
    Yr hydref -  Autumn
    Y gaeaf -  Winter



  • Counting to Ten



    OK so it's not exactly grammar but it is crucially important so we thought we would include it early on in the course. Counting to ten in Welsh:-

    192pxCircle_sign_10.svg.png

    un - one
    dau - two
    tri - three
    pedwar - four
    pump - five
    chwech - six
    saith - seven
    wyth - eight
    naw - nine
    deg - ten

    ..

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