This resource is provided by AmeriCymru and is intended for Welsh learners who are not yet ready to commit to a full time course. With Croeseiriau Cymraeg you can devise your own schedule and learn at your own pace. Before you start please go to this page: Croeseiriau Cymraeg and read the 'Introduction' and 'How to Use' sections.

If you are ready to commit to a full time course we recommend the following options:

AmeriCymraeg This is an online course with tutor John Good, which is offered in two-month terms. Go here for more information and to register: AmeriCymraeg

SSIW Want to learn quickly? Then you might want to check out the SSIW High Intensity Language Program here: SSIW

Online Welsh language course





Ask Dr Gramadeg Sqwar8.jpg


croeseiriau cymraeg.jpg

Fy - My

  • fy - my

    sample sentence:

    Mae rhywun wedi camu ar fy nghastell tywod (i).  

    Someone has stepped on my sandcastle.

    Image: ....castell tywod.

    Possessive Adjectives

    fy, '(y)n....(i) - my     

    dy....(di) - your (singular)

    ei....(e/o/fe) - his

    ei....(hi) - her

    ein....(ni) - our

    eich....(chi) - your (plural)

    eu....(nhw) - their

    You will frequently come across this construction in both the written and spoken languages. The appropriate personal pronoun is added after the noun in order to reinforce or underline the person of the possessor. The addition of the pronoun is not. however, mandatory and the above example sentence works equally well without it. 

    The best likely explanation of the origin of this practice can be found in Gareth King's Modern Welsh: A Comprehensive Grammar

    ' The practice of 'echoing' the pronoun of the possessor after the thing possessed is widespread and may have arisen from the fact that ei (his or her) and eu (their) sound the same.'

    Clearly this could lead to some confusion since you would not be able to tell his , her and their apart, unless, as in some cases the following noun is subject to mutation.


    mutant.jpg In the sample sentence above on this page you will observe that the spelling of one word ( nghastell ) differs from the spelling on the relevant Geiriadur listing page ( Castell - Castle ). Be not alarmed!

    This happens because:-

    "Welsh, as with all other Celtic languages, often sees changes made to the beginning of words depending on the word that precedes it, or the role it plays in the sentence. These changes are known as "mutations", of which Welsh has three distinct types. Common situations in which a mutation may occur are when a word follows a preposition, possessive, or number."

    The three types of mutation are:-

    Soft Mutation

    Nasal Mutation

    Aspirate Mutation

    The three links above will take you to further information about these commonly occurring mutations.

    Most Welsh courses and teachers advise students not to worry too much about this at the outset. Fluent speakers will understand you if you forget to mutate a letter. With practice this will come naturally and there is perhaps, no need for beginning learners to make a conscious effort to apply these rules.

    However, if you wish to acquaint yourself with the rules early on you could look out for the 'Mutant Alert' notice on the vocabulary pages and use these as an opportunity to refresh your knowledge by checking the above links.

    Spot the Mutation: The mutation above is an example of a ........... mutation?