This resource is provided by AmeriCymru and is intended for Welsh learners who are not yet ready to commit to a full time course. With Croeseiriau Cymraeg you can devise your own schedule and learn at your own pace. Before you start please go to this page: Croeseiriau Cymraeg and read the 'Introduction' and 'How to Use' sections.

If you are ready to commit to a full time course we recommend the following options:

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Pan - When / while


  • pan - when/while  ( conjunctions / cysyllteiriau  )

    sample sentence: Roedd Dai yn y dafarn pan glywodd y newyddion . Fydd e ddim yn hapus - Dai was in the pub when he heard the news. He won't be happy!

    Image: Dai yn y dafarn


    Pryd or Pan?

    There are two words for 'when' in Welsh - pryd and pan.

    Pryd is used when asking a question. Consequently we use it when translating the following English phrases or questions:- "When is.....?" , "When was.....?" , "When will.....?"

    If 'when' is being used to make a statement or as a conjunction we use the word pan e.g.

    Pan fyddwch chi'n cyrraedd , byddwn ni'n siarad . - When you arrive we will talk. 

    Roedd Dai yn y dafarn pan glywodd  y newyddion . - Dai was in the pub when he heard the news.

    Time Conjunctions

    Conjunctions are linking words e.g. and , but , because , or. They are used to connect clauses or sentences to form more complex sentences. e.g. 'I want to go out tomorrow but it is going to rain all day.' The words after , before, after, when , as, while, until, since, are conjunctions. Since they indicate when things happen they are called time conjunctions or conjunctions of time .

    Many Welsh conjunctions take a particular construction ( ' i' or ' bod' ) to link them with what follows in the sentence.

    Pan takes neither the 'i' or 'bod' constructions and is immediately followed by the verb when used as a conjunction.

    see: How do conjunctions work in Welsh? for more details.


    mutant.jpg In the sample sentence above on this page you will observe that the spelling of one word ( dafarn , glywodd ) differs from the spelling on the relevant Geiriadur listing page ( Tafarn - Pub Clywed - To Hear  ). Be not alarmed!

    This happens because:-

    "Welsh, as with all other Celtic languages, often sees changes made to the beginning of words depending on the word that precedes it, or the role it plays in the sentence. These changes are known as "mutations", of which Welsh has three distinct types. Common situations in which a mutation may occur are when a word follows a preposition, possessive, or number."

    The three types of mutation are:-

    Soft Mutation

    Nasal Mutation

    Aspirate Mutation

    The three links above will take you to further information about these commonly occurring mutations.

    Most Welsh courses and teachers advise students not to worry too much about this at the outset. Fluent speakers will understand you if you forget to mutate a letter. With practice this will come naturally and there is perhaps, no need for beginning learners to make a conscious effort to apply these rules.

    However, if you wish to acquaint yourself with the rules early on you could look out for the 'Mutant Alert' notice on the vocabulary pages and use these as an opportunity to refresh your knowledge by checking the above links.

    Spot the Mutation: The mutation above is an example of a ........... mutation?