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Croeseiriau Cymraeg Part 3.1 (Crosswords 13-20) - Grammar - The Past Tense And More

  • The Past Imperfect - Yr Amser Amherffaith


    The imperfect tense in Welsh translates as 'I was' or 'I used to'. For example, 'Roeddwn i'n chwarae' translates as 'I was playing' or 'I used to play'. In the sample sentences below there are links to vocabulary pages many of which include soundfiles to assist with pronunciation. ...


    Affirmative


    Roeddwn i                           I was, I used to

    Roeddet ti (familiar)           You were, you used to

    Roeddech chi (formal)      You were, you used to

    Roedd e/hi                           He/She/It was, He/She/It used to

    Roedden ni                         We were, We used to

    Roedden nhw                     They were, they used to

    ..

    The particle 'yn' is used to to connect Verb-Nouns. 'Yn' contracts to 'n following a vowel. Here are some examples:-

    ..

    Roeddwn i'n cerdded i'r llyfrgell . - I was walking to the library.

    Roeddet ti'n bwydo 'r gath . - You were feeding the cat.

    Roeddech chi'n gweithio ddoe . - You were working yesterday.

    Roedd e'n darllen y llyfr . - He was reading the book.

    Roedd hi'n chwilio am yr allweddi . - She was looking for the keys.

    Roedden ni'n yfed yn y dafarn . - We were drinking in the pub.

    Roedden nhw'n cuddio yn y goedwig . - They were hiding in the woods.

    ...


    Negative



    Doeddwn i
    ddim                           I wasn't

    Doeddet ti ddim (familiar)          You weren't

    Doeddech chi ddim (formal)     You weren't

    Doedd e/hi ddim                           He/She wasn't

    Doedden ni ddim                          We weren't

    Doedden nhw ddim                     They weren't

    ..

    e.g. Doeddwn i ddim yn cerdded - I wasn't walking

    ...


    Questions



    Oeddwn i
                               Was I?

    Oeddet ti (familiar)           Were you?

    Oeddech chi (formal)      Were you?

    Oedd e/hi                            Was he/she?

    Oedden ni                          Were we?

    Oedden nhw                      Were they?

    ..

    e.g. Oeddech chi'n cerdded? - Were you walking?

    ..


    Answers



    Oeddwn / Nac oeddwn
                               Yes I was, No I wasn't

    Oeddet / Nac oeddet (familiar)               Yes you were, No you weren't

    Oeddech / Nac oeddech (formal)          Yes you were, No you weren't

    Oedd / Nac oedd                                       Yes he/she was, No he/she wasn't

    Oedden / Nac oedden                               Yes we were, No we weren't

    Oedden / Nac oedden                              Yes they were, No they weren't

    ..


    N.B. In Welsh as in other languages there is a tendency to contract or abbreviate terms and phrases for ease of articulation. Consequently in commonly spoken Welsh you will hear the Imperfect Tense expressed as follows. We have used Siarad - To Talk/Speak as a helper verb in the examples below:- ...

    ..


    Affirmative


    Ro'n i'n siarad                            I was talking, I used to talk

    Ro't ti'n siarad (familiar)          You were talking, you used to talk

    Ro'ch chi'n siarad (formal)     You were talking, you used to talk

    Roedd e/hi siarad                      He/She was talking, he/she used to talk

    Ro'n ni'n siarad                         We were talking, We used to talk

    Ro'n nhw 'n siarad                   They were talking, they used to talk

    ..


    Negative


    Do'n i ddim yn siarad                           I wasn't talking

    Do't ti ddim yn siarad (familiar)          You weren't talking

    Do'ch chi ddim yn siarad (formal)     You weren't talking

    Doedd e/hi ddim yn siarad                   He/She wasn't talking

    Do'n ni ddim yn siarad                         We weren't talking

    Do'n nhw ddim yn siarad                    They weren't talking

    ..


    Questions


    O'n i'n siarad?                            Was I talking?

    O't ti'n siarad? (familiar)            Were you talking?

    O'ch chi'n siarad? (formal)       Were you talking?

    Oedd e/hi yn siarad?                  Was he/she talking?

    O'n ni'n siarad?                           Were we talking?

    O'n nhw' n siarad?                      Were they talking?

    ..


    Answers


    O'n / Nac o'n                              Yes I was / No I wasn't

    O't / Nac o't (familiar)                Yes you were / No you weren't

    O'ch / Nac o'ch (formal)           Yes you were / No you weren't

    Oedd / Nac oedd                       Yes he/she was / No he/she wasn't

    O'n / Nac o'n                               Yes we were / No we weren't

    O'n / Nac o'n                               Yes they were / No they weren't

    . ...

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