This resource is provided by AmeriCymru and is intended for Welsh learners who are not yet ready to commit to a full time course. With Croeseiriau Cymraeg you can devise your own schedule and learn at your own pace. Before you start please go to this page: Croeseiriau Cymraeg and read the 'Introduction' and 'How to Use' sections.
If you are ready to commit to a full time course we recommend the following options:
AmeriCymraeg This is an online course with tutor John Good, which is offered in two-month terms. Go here for more information and to register: AmeriCymraeg
SSIW Want to learn quickly? Then you might want to check out the SSIW High Intensity Language Program here: SSIW
Os - If
os - if ( conjunctions / cysyllteiriau )
sample sentence: Os wyt ti'n dda byddi di'n cael un am Nadolig . - If you're good you'll get one for Christmas
Note: Os or Pe?
Os is used when there is no doubt that something will occur e.g. Os yw'r trên yn hwyr, bydden ni'n colli'r ffilm. - If the train is late, we would miss the film.
Pe is used when there is a doubt or when an occurrence is improbable e.g. Pe byddwn i'n ennill y loteri, byddwn i'n prynu car newydd. - If I won the lottery, I would buy a new car.
Conjunctions are linking words e.g. and , but , because , or. They are used to connect clauses or sentences to form more complex sentences. e.g. 'I want to go out tomorrow but it is going to rain all day.' Many Welsh conjunctions take a particular construction ( ' i' or ' bod' ) to link them with what follows in the sentence.
Os takes neither the 'i' or 'bod' constructions.
see: How do conjunctions work in Welsh? for more details.
In the sample sentence above on this page you will observe that the spelling of one word ( dda ) differs from the spelling on the relevant Geiriadur listing page ( Da - Good ). Be not alarmed!
This happens because:-
"Welsh, as with all other Celtic languages, often sees changes made to the beginning of words depending on the word that precedes it, or the role it plays in the sentence. These changes are known as "mutations", of which Welsh has three distinct types. Common situations in which a mutation may occur are when a word follows a preposition, possessive, or number."
The three types of mutation are:-
The three links above will take you to further information about these commonly occurring mutations.
Most Welsh courses and teachers advise students not to worry too much about this at the outset. Fluent speakers will understand you if you forget to mutate a letter. With practice this will come naturally and there is perhaps, no need for beginning learners to make a conscious effort to apply these rules.
However, if you wish to acquaint yourself with the rules early on you could look out for the 'Mutant Alert' notice on the vocabulary pages and use these as an opportunity to refresh your knowledge by checking the above links.
Spot the Mutation: The mutation above is an example of a ........... mutation?