Gallwn - Could
This is the conditional form of gallu (can, to be able) and means 'could'. It uses similar endings to other auxiliary or modal verbs e.g. dylwn -should , byddwn - would and hoffwn - would like. Gallwn is not followed by “yn + verb noun” but only the verb noun. It also causes a mutation in the verb that follows (see examples below).
To say 'I could have', 'you could have' etc put fod wedi after gallwn . The following verb does not mutate. See full forms below.
gallwn i i could
gallet ti you (familiar) could
gallai e/o he could
gallai hi she could
gallen ni we could
gallech chi you (formal & plural) could
gallen nhw they could
allwn i ddim i couldn't
allet ti ddim you (familiar) couldn't
allai e/o ddim he couldn't
allai hi ddim she couldn't
allen ni ddim we couldn't
allech chi ddim you (formal & plural)couldn't
allen nhw ddim they couldn't
allwn i? could I?
allet di? could you?
allai e/o? could he?
all hi? could she?
allen ni? could we?
allech chi? could you?
allen nhw? could they?
allet/na allet, gallech/na gallech
gallech/na gallech, gallen/na gallen
gallwn/na gallwn, gallen/na gallen
Gallwn i fod wedi i could have
Gallet ti fod wedi you (familiar) could have
Gallai hi fod wedi she could have
Gallai e or Gallai o fod wedi he could have
Gallen ni fod wedi we could have
Gallech chi fod wedi you (formal & plural) could have
Gallen nhw fod wedi they could have
The 'g' is dropped in the negative form e.g. Allwn i ddim fod wedi - I couldn't have
In the sample sentence above on this page you will observe that the spelling of one word ( fynd ) differs from the spelling on the relevant Geiriadur listing page ( Mynd - To Go ). Be not alarmed!
This happens because:-
"Welsh, as with all other Celtic languages, often sees changes made to the beginning of words depending on the word that precedes it, or the role it plays in the sentence. These changes are known as "mutations", of which Welsh has three distinct types. Common situations in which a mutation may occur are when a word follows a preposition, possessive, or number."
The three types of mutation are:-
The three links above will take you to further information on Wikipedia about these commonly occurring mutations.
Most Welsh courses and teachers advise students not to worry too much about this at the outset. Fluent speakers will understand you if you forget to mutate a letter. With practice this will come naturally and there is perhaps, no need for beginning learners to make a conscious effort to apply these rules.
However, if you wish to acquaint yourself with the rules early on you could look out for the 'Mutant Alert' notice on the vocabulary pages and use these as an opportunity to refresh your knowledge by checking the above links.
Spot the Mutation: The mutation above is an example of a ........... mutation?