Hoffwn - Would like
This is the conditional form of hoffi (to like) and means 'would like'. It uses similar endings to other auxiliary or modal verbs e.g. dylwn -should , gallwn - could and byddwn - would. Hoffwn is not followed by “yn + verb noun” but only the verb noun. It also causes a mutation in the verb that follows (see examples below).
To say 'I would have liked', 'you would have liked' etc put fod wedi after hoffwn . The following verb does not mutate. See full forms below.
hoffwn i I would like
hoffet ti you (familiar) would like
hoffai fe he would like
hoffai hi she would like
hoffen ni we would like
hoffech chi you (formal & plural) would like
hoffen nhw they would like
hoffwn i ddim I would not like
hoffet ti ddim you (familiar) wouldn't like
hoffai fe ddim he wouldn't like
hoffai hi ddim she wouldn't like
hoffen ni ddim we wouldn't like
hoffech chi ddim you (formal & plural) wouldn't like
hoffen nhw ddim they wouldn't like
hoffwn i? would I like?
hoffet ti? would you (familiar) like?
hoffai fe? would he like?
hoffai hi? would she like?
hoffen ni? would we like?
hoffech chi? would you (formal & plural) like?
hoffen nhw? would they like?
hoffet/na hoffet, hoffech/na hoffech
hoffech/na hoffech, hoffen/na hoffen
hoffwn/na hoffwn, hoffen/na hoffen
WOULD HAVE LIKED
hoffwn i fod wedi i would have liked
hoffet ti fod wedi you (familiar) would have liked
hoffai hi fod wedi she would have liked
hoffai e or Gallai o fod wedi he would have liked
hoffen ni fod wedi we would have liked
hoffech chi fod wedi you (formal & plural) would have liked
hoffen nhw fod wedi they would have liked
In the sample sentence above on this page you will observe that the spelling of one word ( ngwaith cartref ) differs from the spelling on the relevant Geiriadur listing page ( Gwaith Cartref - Homework ). Be not alarmed!
This happens because:-
"Welsh, as with all other Celtic languages, often sees changes made to the beginning of words depending on the word that precedes it, or the role it plays in the sentence. These changes are known as "mutations", of which Welsh has three distinct types. Common situations in which a mutation may occur are when a word follows a preposition, possessive, or number."
The three types of mutation are:-
The three links above will take you to further information on Wikipedia about these commonly occurring mutations.
Most Welsh courses and teachers advise students not to worry too much about this at the outset. Fluent speakers will understand you if you forget to mutate a letter. With practice this will come naturally and there is perhaps, no need for beginning learners to make a conscious effort to apply these rules.
However, if you wish to acquaint yourself with the rules early on you could look out for the 'Mutant Alert' notice on the vocabulary pages and use these as an opportunity to refresh your knowledge by checking the above links.
Spot the Mutation: The mutation above is an example of a ........... mutation?