This resource is provided by AmeriCymru and is intended for Welsh learners who are not yet ready to commit to a full time course. With Croeseiriau Cymraeg you can devise your own schedule and learn at your own pace. Before you start please go to this page: Croeseiriau Cymraeg and read the 'Introduction' and 'How to Use' sections.
If you are ready to commit to a full time course we recommend the following options:
AmeriCymraeg This is an online course with tutor John Good, which is offered in two-month terms. Go here for more information and to register: AmeriCymraeg
SSIW Want to learn quickly? Then you might want to check out the SSIW High Intensity Language Program here: SSIW
Dod - To Come
In the sample sentence above on this page you will observe that the spelling of one word ( fynd ) differs from the spelling on the relevant Geiriadur listing page ( Mynd - To Go ). Be not alarmed!
This happens because:-
"Welsh, as with all other Celtic languages, often sees changes made to the beginning of words depending on the word that precedes it, or the role it plays in the sentence. These changes are known as "mutations", of which Welsh has three distinct types. Common situations in which a mutation may occur are when a word follows a preposition, possessive, or number."
The three types of mutation are:-
The three links above will take you to further information on Wikipedia about these commonly occurring mutations.
Most Welsh courses and teachers advise students not to worry too much about this at the outset. Fluent speakers will understand you if you forget to mutate a letter. With practice this will come naturally and there is perhaps, no need for beginning learners to make a conscious effort to apply these rules.
However, if you wish to acquaint yourself with the rules early on you could look out for the 'Mutant Alert' notice on the vocabulary pages and use these as an opportunity to refresh your knowledge by checking the above links.
Spot the Mutation: The mutation above is an example of a ........... mutation?
dod - to come ( can also mean become , put or bring )
Pwy sy 'n dod yfory ? = Who is coming tomorrow?.
Dai yn dod yfory . = Dai is coming tomorrow.
Bydd yma ar ôl cinio . = He will be here after lunch. .
Image: Pwy sy'n dod...
N.B. Dod is irregular in the Imperative/Command form.
Singular: tyrd! (north Wales) dere! (south Wales)
PRESENT TENSE - AFFIRMATIVE
Dwi'n dod - I am coming
Wyt ti'n dod - You are coming (familiar)
Mae e'n dod / Mae hi'n dod - He / She is coming
Dyn ni'n dod - We are coming
Dych chi'n dod - You (plural) are coming (also singular formal)
Maen nhw'n dod - They are coming
PRESENT TENSE - NEGATIVE
Dwi ddim yn dod - I am not coming
Dwyt ti ddim yn dod - You are not coming (familiar)
Dydy e ddim yn dod / Dydy hi ddim yn dod - He / She is not coming
Dyn ni ddim yn dod - We are not coming
Dych chi ddim yn dod - You (plural) are not coming (also singular formal)
Dyn nhw ddim yn dod - They are not coming
PRESENT TENSE - INTERROGATIVE
Ydw i'n dod? - Am I coming?
Wyt ti'n dod? - Are you coming? (familiar)
Ydy e'n dod / Ydy hi'n dod? - Is he / Is she coming?
Ydyn ni'n dod? - Are we coming?
Ydych chi'n dod? - Are you (plural) coming? (also singular formal)
Ydyn nhw'n dod? - Are they coming?
QU ESTION - ’NO / YES’ REPLIES
Ydw i'n dod? - (Nac) Wyt / (Ydych - formal)
Wyt ti'n dod? - (Nac) Ydw
Ydy e'n dod / Ydy hi'n dod? - (Nac) Ydy
Ydyn ni'n dod? - (Nac) Ydyn / Ydych
Ydych chi'n dod? - (Nac) Ydyn / (Ydw - formal)
Ydyn nhw'n dod? - (Nac) Ydyn
IMPERATIVE - IRREGULAR
For more on the imperative form (commands) go here:- Commands
N.B. 'Wyt ti' is the familiar form of the 2nd person and should be used only when addressing close friends, family members and animals. 'Dych chi' is the polite form and should be used in all other instances.