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Rhybuddio - To Warn , To Caution , To Notify

  • rhybuddio - to warn , to caution , to notify

    sample sentence: Mae'n rhaid i mi eich rhybuddio. Hwn yw fy nghleddyf a dyna fy ngheffyl ... felly byddwch yn ofalus iawn. - I must warn you. This is my sword and that is my horse...so be very careful.

    Image: ...byddwch yn ofalus iawn

  • *MUTANT ALERT*



    mutant.jpgIn the sample sentence above on this page you will observe that the spelling of three words ( nghleddyf , ngheffyl , ofalus ) differ from the spelling on the relevant Geiriadur listing page ( Cleddyf - Sword , Ceffyl - Horse , Gofalus - Careful ). Be not alarmed!

    This happens because:-

    "Welsh, as with all other Celtic languages, often sees changes made to the beginning of words depending on the word that precedes it, or the role it plays in the sentence. These changes are known as "mutations", of which Welsh has three distinct types. Common situations in which a mutation may occur are when a word follows a preposition, possessive, or number."

    The three types of mutation are:-

    Soft Mutation

    Nasal Mutation

    Aspirate Mutation

    The three links above will take you to further information on Wikipedia about these commonly occurring mutations.

    Most Welsh courses and teachers advise students not to worry too much about this at the outset. Fluent speakers will understand you if you forget to mutate a letter. With practice this will come naturally and there is perhaps, no need for beginning learners to make a conscious effort to apply these rules.

    However, if you wish to acquaint yourself with the rules early on you could look out for the 'Mutant Alert' notice on the vocabulary pages and use these as an opportunity to refresh your knowledge by checking the above links.

    Spot the Mutation: The mutation above is an example of a ........... mutation?


  • PRESENT TENSE - AFFIRMATIVE


    ...

    Dwi'n rhybuddio - I am warning

    Wyt ti'n rhybuddio - You are warning (familiar)

    Mae e'n rhybuddio / Mae hi'n rhybuddio - He / She is warning

    Dyn ni'n rhybuddio - We are warning

    Dych chi'n rhybuddio - You (plural) are warning (also singular formal)

    Maen nhw'n rhybuddio - They are warning

    ,,,


    PRESENT TENSE - NEGATIVE


    ...

    Dwi ddim yn rhybuddio - I am not warning

    Dwyt ti ddim yn rhybuddio - You are not warning (familiar)

    Dydy e ddim yn rhybuddio / Dydy hi ddim yn rhybuddio - He / She is not warning

    Dyn ni ddim yn rhybuddio - We are not warning

    Dych chi ddim yn rhybuddio - You (plural) are not warning (also singular formal)

    Dyn nhw ddim yn rhybuddio - They are not warning

    ...


    PRESENT TENSE - INTERROGATIVE


    ...

    Ydw i'n rhybuddio? - Am I warning?

    Wyt ti'n rhybuddio? - Are you warning? (familiar)

    Ydy e'n rhybuddio / Ydy hi'n rhybuddio? - Is he / Is she warning?

    Ydyn ni'n rhybuddio? - Are we warning?

    Ydych chi'n rhybuddio? - Are you (plural) warning? (also singular formal)

    Ydyn nhw'n rhybuddio? - Are they warning?

    ...


    QUESTION - ’NO / YES’ REPLIES


    ...

    Ydw i'n rhybuddio? - (Nac) Wyt / (Ydych - formal)

    Wyt ti'n rhybuddio? - (Nac) Ydw

    Ydy e'n rhybuddio / Ydy hi'n rhybuddio? - (Nac) Ydy

    Ydyn ni'n rhybuddio? - (Nac) Ydyn / Ydych

    Ydych chi'n rhybuddio? - (Nac) Ydyn / (Ydw - formal)

    Ydyn nhw'n rhybuddio? - (Nac) Ydyn

    ...


    N.B. 'Wyt ti' is the familiar form of the 2nd person and should be used only when addressing close friends, family members and animals. 'Dych chi' is the polite form and should be used in all other instances.

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