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Ansoddeiriau Cymraeg - Welsh Adjectives FAQ

  • Do adjectives always follow the noun in Welsh?

    Adjectives always come after the noun in Welsh. There are few exceptions. Here are some of the most important ones:-

    hen - old                                           Dwi'n siarad yr hen iaith ( I speak the old language )

    hoff - favourite                                 Dwi'n yfed fy hoff cwrw ( I am drinking my favourite beer )

    prif - chief / main                             Dwi'n mynd i'r brif ynys ( I am going to the main island )

    How do we form the Equative , Comparative and Superlative?

    How do we construct the equative, comparative and superlative forms of Welsh adjectives?

    Adjectives with one or two syllables take the endings listed below:

    trwm - heavy
    cyn trymed â - as heavy as
    trymach - heavier
    trymaf - heaviest

    Adjectives with two or more syllables use 'mor' , 'mwy' and 'mwyaf'. See below:

    hanesyddol - historical , historic
    mor hanesyddol â - as historic/al as
    mwy hanesyddol - more historic/al
    mwyaf hanesyddol - most historic/al

    Adjectives which have exactly two syllables can take either form.

    There are irregular adjectives. The forms they take are listed on the individual Geiriadur vocabulary pages.

    How do we use possessive adjectives in Welsh?

    Possessive adjectives are linked below . Click on the links for more details.

    fy  - my     

    dy  - your (singular)

    ei  - his

    ei  - her

    ein  - our

    eich  - your (plural)

    eu  - their

    How do we form adverbs from adjectives in Welsh?

    English adds a suffix 'ly' to the adjective in order to form the adverb. In Welsh we simply add 'yn' before the adjective. See examples below:

    hawdd - easy                                  yn hawdd - easily
    anffodus - unfortunate                    yn anffodus - unfortunately

    It should be borne in mind that some words are adverbs by definition e.g.

    yfory - tomorrow , nawr - now , yna - then

    What are the demonstrative adjectives in Welsh?
    In spoken Welsh if we want to say 'this chair' we would say - y gadair 'ma - or (literally) 'the chair here'. There is no need to distinguish between this, that or these and those. This construction works equally well for all four:-
    y gadair 'ma - this chair
    y gadair 'ma - that chair
    y gadeiriau 'ma - these chairs
    y gadeiriau 'ma - those chairs

    In formal and written Welsh, however, proper demonstrative adjectives are employed. They are as follows:-

     Singular  Plural

                       this                   that           

                  hwn                 hwnnw

      f                 hon                  honno

                         these          those

      m/f              hyn             hynny 

    When used without a noun i.e. when used to denote an abstract or non-tangible object these words are demonstrative pronouns .

    What are adjective modifiers in Welsh?


    Examples of adjective moifiers include:- iawn - very , rhy - too , digon - enough.

    Mae'r bws yn rhy araf i mi. - The bus is too slow for me.
    Mae'r ystafell yn ddigon cynnes. - The room is not warm enough.
    Mae hwn yn lle arbennig iawn. - This is a very special place.

    Note that iawn comes after the adjective whilst the other modifiers come before it.

    Under what circumstances do adjectives mutate?
    Adjectives always require soft mutation when following a feminine singular noun. Masculine nouns and feminine plural nouns do not cause mutation e.g.
    cadair - chair (f)              cadair fawr - big chair                cadeiriau mawr - big chairs
    adeilad - building (m)      adeilad mawr - big building      adeiladau mawr - big buildings