This resource is provided by AmeriCymru and is intended for Welsh learners who are not yet ready to commit to a full time course. With Croeseiriau Cymraeg you can devise your own schedule and learn at your own pace. Before you start please go to this page: Croeseiriau Cymraeg and read the 'Introduction' and 'How to Use' sections.
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Gwell - Better
gwell - better, preferable
sample sentence: Mae'n rhaid i mi gofio fy cit pêl-droed y tro nesaf . Mae'n well i mi fynd nawr . - I must remember my football kit next time. I'd better go now.
Image: ...cit pêl-droed
Gwell is used in a similar way to rhaid . There are, however, a number of differences:-
Mae/'n well i fi / mi - I had better
Mae /'n well i ti - You had better (familiar)
Mae /'n well iddo fe / iddi hi - He / She had better
Mae /'n well i ni - We had better
Mae /'n well i chi - You had better (singular formal & plural)
Mae /'n well iddyn nhw - They had better
1. To form the negative substitute dyw hi ddim for does dim
2. To ask a question substitute ydy hi'n? for oes?
3. To form the negative in the past tense substitute doedd hi ddim yn for doedd dim .
e.g. Doedd hi ddim yn well i ni aros. - It wasn't better for us to wait/stay.
4. To form a question in the past tense substitute oedd hi'n? for oedd?
e.g. Oedd hi'n well i ni gael ychydig o beintiau? - Was it better for us to have a few pints?
In the sample sentence above on this page you will observe that the spelling of three words ( gofio , well , fynd ) differs from the spelling on the relevant Geiriadur listing page Cofio - To Remember , Gwell - Better , Mynd - To Go . Be not alarmed!
This happens because:-
"Welsh, as with all other Celtic languages, often sees changes made to the beginning of words depending on the word that precedes it, or the role it plays in the sentence. These changes are known as "mutations", of which Welsh has three distinct types. Common situations in which a mutation may occur are when a word follows a preposition, possessive, or number."
The three types of mutation are:-
The three links above will take you to further information about these commonly occurring mutations.
Most Welsh courses and teachers advise students not to worry too much about this at the outset. Fluent speakers will understand you if you forget to mutate a letter. With practice this will come naturally and there is perhaps, no need for beginning learners to make a conscious effort to apply these rules.
However, if you wish to acquaint yourself with the rules early on you could look out for the 'Mutant Alert' notice on the vocabulary pages and use these as an opportunity to refresh your knowledge by checking the above links.
Spot the Mutation: The mutation above is an example of a ........... mutation?