Codi - To Get Up , Raise
In the sample sentence above on this page you will observe that the spelling of one word ( dro ) differs from the spelling on the relevant Geiriadur listing page ( Tro - Walk ). Be not alarmed!
This happens because:-
"Welsh, as with all other Celtic languages, often sees changes made to the beginning of words depending on the word that precedes it, or the role it plays in the sentence. These changes are known as "mutations", of which Welsh has three distinct types. Common situations in which a mutation may occur are when a word follows a preposition, possessive, or number."
The three types of mutation are:-
The three links above will take you to further information on Wikipedia about these commonly occurring mutations.
Most Welsh courses and teachers advise students not to worry too much about this at the outset. Fluent speakers will understand you if you forget to mutate a letter. With practice this will come naturally and there is perhaps, no need for beginning learners to make a conscious effort to apply these rules.
However, if you wish to acquaint yourself with the rules early on you could look out for the 'Mutant Alert' notice on the vocabulary pages and use these as an opportunity to refresh your knowledge by checking the above links.
Spot the Mutation: The mutation above is an example of a ........... mutation?
PRESENT TENSE - AFFIRMATIVE
Dwi'n codi - I am getting up
Wyt ti'n codi - You are getting up (familiar)
Mae e'n codi / Mae hi'n codi - He / She is getting up
Dyn ni'n codi - We are getting up
Dych chi'n codi - You (plural) are getting up (also singular formal)
Maen nhw'n codi - They are getting up
PRESENT TENSE - NEGATIVE
Dwi ddim yn codi - I am not getting up
Dwyt ti ddim yn codi - You are not getting up (familiar)
Dydy e ddim yn codi / Dydy hi ddim yn codi - He / She is not getting up
Dyn ni ddim yn codi - We are not getting up
Dych chi ddim yn codi - You (plural) are not getting up (also singular formal)
Dyn nhw ddim yn codi - They are not getting up
PRESENT TENSE - INTERROGATIVE
Ydw i'n codi? - Am I getting up?
Wyt ti'n codi? - Are you getting up? (familiar)
Ydy e'n codi / Ydy hi'n codi? - Is he / Is she getting up?
Ydyn ni'n codi? - Are we getting up?
Ydych chi'n codi? - Are you (plural) getting up? (also singular formal)
Ydyn nhw'n codi? - Are they getting up?
QUESTION - ’NO / YES’ REPLIES
Ydw i'n codi? - (Nac) Wyt / (Ydych - formal)
Wyt ti'n codi? - (Nac) Ydw
Ydy e'n codi / Ydy hi'n codi? - (Nac) Ydy
Ydyn ni'n codi? - (Nac) Ydyn / Ydych
Ydych chi'n codi? - (Nac) Ydyn / (Ydw - formal)
Ydyn nhw'n codi? - (Nac) Ydyn
N.B. 'Wyt ti' is the familiar form of the 2nd person and should be used only when addressing close friends, family members and animals. 'Dych chi' is the polite form and should be used in all other instances.