This resource is provided by AmeriCymru and is intended for Welsh learners who are not yet ready to commit to a full time course. With Croeseiriau Cymraeg you can devise your own schedule and learn at your own pace. Before you start please go to this page: Croeseiriau Cymraeg and read the 'Introduction' and 'How to Use' sections.
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Hela - To Hunt
hela - to hunt
Ydych chi'n hela werinwyr heddiw ? - Are you hunting peasants today?
Efallai .... doeddwn i ddim wedi meddwl amdano . - Perhaps, I had not thought about it.
Image: Man on horse
In the sample sentence above on this page you will observe that the spelling of one word ( werinwyr ) differs from the spelling on the relevant Geiriadur listing page Gwerinwr - Peasant / Common man . Be not alarmed!
This happens because:-
"Welsh, as with all other Celtic languages, often sees changes made to the beginning of words depending on the word that precedes it, or the role it plays in the sentence. These changes are known as "mutations", of which Welsh has three distinct types. Common situations in which a mutation may occur are when a word follows a preposition, possessive, or number."
The three types of mutation are:-
The three links above will take you to further information about these commonly occurring mutations.
Most Welsh courses and teachers advise students not to worry too much about this at the outset. Fluent speakers will understand you if you forget to mutate a letter. With practice this will come naturally and there is perhaps, no need for beginning learners to make a conscious effort to apply these rules.
However, if you wish to acquaint yourself with the rules early on you could look out for the 'Mutant Alert' notice on the vocabulary pages and use these as an opportunity to refresh your knowledge by checking the above links.
Spot the Mutation: The mutation above is an example of a ........... mutation?
PRESENT TENSE - AFFIRMATIVE
Dwi'n hela - I am hunting
Wyt ti'n hela - You are hunting (familiar)
Mae e'n hela / Mae hi'n hela - He / She is hunting
Dyn ni'n hela - We are hunting
Dych chi'n hela - You (plural) are hunting (also singular formal)
Maen nhw'n hela - They are hunting
PRESENT TENSE - NEGATIVE
Dwi ddim yn hela - I am not hunting
Dwyt ti ddim yn hela - You are not hunting (familiar)
Dydy e ddim yn hela / Dydy hi ddim yn hela - He / She is not hunting
Dyn ni ddim yn hela - We are not hunting
Dych chi ddim yn hela - You (plural) are not hunting (also singular formal)
Dyn nhw ddim yn hela - They are not hunting
PRESENT TENSE - INTERROGATIVE
Ydw i'n hela? - Am I hunting?
Wyt ti'n hela? - Are you hunting? (familiar)
Ydy e'n hela / Ydy hi'n hela? - Is he / Is she hunting?
Ydyn ni'n hela? - Are we hunting?
Ydych chi'n hela? - Are you (plural) hunting? (also singular formal)
Ydyn nhw'n hela? - Are they hunting?
QUESTION - ’NO / YES’ REPLIES
Ydw i'n hela? - (Nac) Wyt / (Ydych - formal)
Wyt ti'n hela? - (Nac) Ydw
Ydy e'n hela / Ydy hi'n hela? - (Nac) Ydy
Ydyn ni'n hela? - (Nac) Ydyn / Ydych
Ydych chi'n hela? - (Nac) Ydyn / (Ydw - formal)
Ydyn nhw'n hela? - (Nac) Ydyn
N.B. 'Wyt ti' is the familiar form of the 2nd person and should be used only when addressing close friends, family members and animals. 'Dych chi' is the polite form and should be used in all other instances.